There are two main philosophical and ideological schools of thought that include the problem of internationalism in their principles. The first is liberal internationalism, which developed within the framework of classical liberalism. The second is orthodox Marxism and its various derivatives that entertain the idea of proletarian internationalism. The concept of internationalism has different origins, meanings, and practical implementations in the two schools of thought.
Some Christian academics have condemned a study in an American Psychological Association publication because its findings about legislation that was meant to protect the LGBT community from discrimination didn't mirror reality.